High BP minimizing which have supplemental dosage off potassium on variety off 1900 in order to 4700 mg/d (49–122 mmol/d) has been reported to effect a result of BP decrease in just as much as dos so you’re able to 6 mm hg for diastolic BP and you will two to four mm hg to have systolic BP. the fresh highest variability anywhere between show shows the fresh variability observed in other studies. in addition, the effect away from potassium towards the BP try influenced by pretreatment BP level; age; race; sex; comorbid conditions; intake from sodium, magnesium, calcium, and other ions; diet; exercise; weight; datingranking.net/local-hookup/seattle sort of potassium put; concomitant drugs; and you may duration of use. a summary of the latest findings of all meta-analyses towards the effects of potassium into the BP up until now is given into the Contour 3.
Overview of meta-analyses off education investigating the brand new blood circulation pressure-minimizing aftereffects of potassium. 25–28 SBP means systolic blood pressure levels; DBP, diastolic blood circulation pressure.
In the event contradictory efficiency about your effects of potassium supplementation to your BP was stated when you look at the scientific studies, 34, thirty-five newer products have demonstrated results in line with that the newest meta-study of the Whelton and you will associates twenty six (Desk II). Gu and colleagues thirty six unearthed that moderate potassium supplementation (sixty mmol KCl) drawn for 12 weeks contributed to a reduction in systolic BP, not diastolic BP, during the an excellent Chinese populace. Likewise, Kawano and you can associates 37 documented one to good 4-month potassium supplements several months (during which 64 mmol/d of potassium was given while the sluggish-launch KCl) led to brief but significant decrease when you look at the workplace, household, and you will 24-time BP inside Japanese anyone. Braschi and you will acquaintances 38 after that checked out the end result out of lower-amount potassium supplementation into the BP and found you to definitely 24 mmol/d from sluggish-discharge KCl administered to possess 6 weeks resulted in extreme decrease into the mean arterial pressure and you will diastolic BP when you look at the fit volunteers.
Components in which Potassium Reduces BP
The fresh new homeostasis regarding salt and you may potassium performs an important role for the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. 39 Sodium storage decreases the synthesis out-of nitric oxide, an enthusiastic arteriolar vasodilator elaborated of the endothelial tissue, and you may increases the plasma number of asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine, an enthusiastic endogenous inhibitor off nitric oxide creation. forty a nourishment full of potassium also expands during the solution potassium, even from inside the physiologic variety, cause endothelium-oriented vasodilatation by hyperpolarizing the endothelial telephone thanks to arousal of your own sodium push and you can starting potassium channels. 41 Simultaneously, most other proposed components which potassium can also be dictate BP include natriuresis, modulation out of baroreceptor sensitiveness, shorter vasoconstrictive susceptibility to norepinephrine and you will angiotensin II, increased gel and you will urinary kallikrein, increased salt/potassium In the Pase activity, alteration within the DNA synthesis, and you will expansion into the vascular effortless strength and you will sympathetic neurological system cells. 42, 43
Fat reduction Recommendations having Potassium
Maintaining an adequate intake of dietary potassium (>90 mmol [3500 mg]/d) has been recommended for the primary prevention of hypertension by the JNC 7.13 The Institute of Medicine has recommended a sodium intake <65 mmol/d (3.8 g/d) and an increase in potassium to 120 mmol/d. 44 In 2006, the American Heart Association issued new guidelines suggesting an increase in potassium intake to 120 mmol/d (4.7 g/d), which is the level provided in the DASH diets in which all food is supplied. 14 The Canadian Hypertension Society recommends that the daily dietary intake of potassium should be ?60 mmol, since this intake has been associated with a reduced risk of stroke-related mortality. 45, 46 The most recent European Society of Hypertension guidelines also support an increased potassium intake based on the DASH diet. 18 In addition, the 2003 World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension statement recommends a diet high in fruits and vegetables, a reduction of dietary sodium intake, and increased dietary potassium intake for reducing the incidence of hypertension. 16 Some sources of high-potassium, low-sodium foods are listed in Table III. 47